†Animal science is described as "studying the biology of animals that are under the control of mankind" . Historically the animals studied were farm animals but courses available now look at a far broader area to include companion animals for example dogs, cats, horses and captive animals .

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The most affected breeds are the large and the medium ones, but it can also affect the small breeds. The most cases of hip dysplasia can be found in breeds like German Shepherds, Labrador Retrievers, Rottweilers, Great Danes, Golden Retrievers, and Saint Bernards. Hip dysplasia is usually caused by your dog genetic heritage. Studies have shown that if your dog has hip dysplasia then your future puppies may be developing hip dysplasia. If you want to buy a puppy you have to select the one whose parents and grandparents havenít been treated for hip dysplasia. Hip dysplasia can also be found on humans, cats.
Pathophysiology

Finding out that the dog you love so much suffers from hip dysplasia has the potential of confusing or upsetting you. If you know at least a few things about this disease that affects dogs, you can give your dog a much better care. The first thing you should know is that hip dysplasia is a type of joint disease that is degenerative and affects the hip joints of the dog. The purpose of the hip joint is to connect the body of the dog with the hind leg, with the help of the socket and ball joint. The head part of the femur bone is the one that forms the ball part. The connective tissue and the ligaments are those that keep the bones together, with a cartilage that is tough but smooth acting as a cushion. If your dog is healthy, the pelvic and femur bones will fit together perfectly, which means that the joint will work as it should.

But, if the dog suffers from hip dysplasia, the joints from the hip will not fit, since they donít develop normally. Dysplasia actually means that the growth process is abnormal or impaired. In some cases, the hip dysplasia will cause the jointís ball not to fit the socket of the pelvic bone as it should. In most cases, this happens when the pelvic bone is shallow. In such a case, the femur will sometimes slip out of the socket, since the joint is loose, which cases the hip to dislocate. In other situations, the connective tissue and the ligaments are to blame for the abnormal development. In this case, the joint may become instable, because the support is insufficient. When this happens, the pelvic bones and the femur can become separated. Hip dysplasia is caused in most cases by one of these problems. The end result is that the hips of the dogs become deteriorated, weak and arthritic.

Hip dysplasia doesnít always appear in both hips. Sometimes only one hip will be affected. The effects will vary from the most severe to the mildly crippling. In most cases, hip dysplasia will start to influence dogs at a younger age, but its effects might not show up until later in the dogís life. Doctors canít identify the age even at puppies that are four months old, but the symptoms might only show up when he becomes an adult.


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